Law & Policy
This document is based upon the requirements of the federal, state, and city law, regulations, and policies.
(Burns, de Villiers, Pearson, & Champion 2012) Dialect-Neutral Indices of Narrative Cohesion and Evaluation
This study investigated the usefulness of specific narrative elements determined to be “dialect neutral” in discriminating between typically developing and language impaired speakers, regardless of dialect status (General American English vs. African American English).
Cate Crowley from Teachers College, Columbia University along with Tia Washington and Diane El-Sawaf from the New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) discuss measures taken to combat the over referral of students from diverse backgrounds for special education services.
Dr. Cate Crowley created this document to support speech language pathologists in appropriate disability determination, from carrying out the assessment to writing a quality report. Included here is a template along with the law, policy, and research supporting it as best practice in identifying individuals with disability.
This article was one of the first to investigate nonword repetition as dynamic assessment. It also highlighted its importance as a less biased measure of language impairment for individuals from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.
A summary of the National Literacy Panel’s findings with regard to evidence based literacy instructions for English Language Learners and suggestions for clinicians and educators.
This is a special education field advisory that was released in December, 2014. It details the use of standardized scores with culturally and linguistically diverse children.
(Hasson et al., 2013) Discriminating Disorder from Difference Using Dynamic Assessment with Bilingual Children
This study builds on recent evidence of the usefulness of dynamic assessment (DA) along with a mediated learning experience (MLE) and graduated prompting as a more appropriate method of determining the presence of language disorder (LD) in culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children.
(Alt, Meyers, & Figueroa 2013) Factors That Influence Fast Mapping in Children Exposed to Spanish and English
The current study asked whether bilingual children would show less advantage in fast-mapping high-probability words as a result of interference from the second language (in this case Spanish) when compared to monolingual (English) children.
(LEADERSproject.org) What’s Wrong With Labeling a Child With a Disability When the Child Does Not Have One?
This document relays some important points about why practitioners must take care when labeling children as having a disability or not because of the effects it can have on their academic futures.
This document presents why a shift in approach to disability evaluation of preschoolers from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds is needed.
This memo outlines current issues in the speech and language evaluation process in New York.
This article highlighted the role that evaluators play in perpetuating the achievement gap between students from different socioeconomic backgrounds.
(Spaulding, Swartwout Szulga, & Figueroa, 2012) Using Norm-Referenced Tests to Determine Severity of Language Impairment in Children: Disconnect Between U.S. Policy Makers and Test Developers
This study has exposed the disconnect between research, state and federal law, and clinical practice.
This is a textbook for educators and clinicians working with children whose primary deficits differ from the Standard American English (SAE) normally taught in schools.
(Kapantzoglou, Restrepo, & Thompson, 2012) Dynamic Assessment of Word Learning Skills: Identifying Language Impairment in Bilingual Children
The purpose of this article was to determine whether dynamic assessment (DA) of word learning was accurate in identifying the presence of language impairment (LI) in preschool-age bilingual children who are often misidentified as language impaired under current assessment practices due to flawed assessment procedures.
(Olswang, Rodriguez, & Timler, 1998) Recommending Intervention for Toddlers With Specific Language Learning Difficulties: We May Not Have All the Answers, But We Know a Lot
This review analyzed the literature available at the time in order to compile characteristics that would enable early intervention (EI) providers to distinguish between children who are “late talkers” but will likely catch up to their peers without therapy (as the majority do) and those who truly have a language disorder.
Knowledge and Skills Needed by Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists to Provide Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services
This is a policy document published by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) establishing its position on what skills are needed by speech language pathologists in order to work competently with culturally and linguistically diverse clients.
This article demonstrated that despite the 10 years that had passed between the publication of McCauley and Swisher (1984) and this article, the vast majority of commercially available norm-referenced tests did not provide psychometric measures deemed necessary in order to establish a test as valid.
(McCauley & Swisher, 1984) Psychometric Review of Language and Articulation Tests for Preschool Children
This was one of the first of many articles publishing research demonstrating the severe limitations of using commercially available child language tests when assessing children for speech and language disability.
This article describes a framework for schools and other educational institutions to follow in order to begin to implement RTI with their own students.
(Spaulding, Plante, & Farinella, 2006) Eligibility Criteria for Language Impairment: Is the Low End of Normal Always Appropriate?
This article demonstrates how many standardized tests do not even provide information about validity and reliability.
(Peña & Quinn, 1997) Task Familiarity: Effects on the Test Performance of Puerto Rican and African American Children
This study illustrates how important it is for an evaluator to be familiar with both the typical language practices of the communities they work in as well as the bias inherent in many of the standardized tests that are used to determine disability.
(Paradis, 2005) Grammatical Morphology in Children Learning English as a Second Language: Implications of Similarities with Specific Language Impairment
This study provided evidence that typically developing children acquiring English exhibit errors on standardized tests that are similar to the performance of monolingual children with specific language impairment.
(Pruitt & Oetting, 2009) Past Tense Marking by African American English-Speaking Children Reared in Poverty AND Passive Participle Marking by African American English-Speaking Children Reared in Poverty
These studies represent more evidence against the use of standardized tests when assessing the linguistic abilities of culturally or linguistically diverse (CLD) children.
This study showed that examining only one of a bilingual child’s languages does not provide an accurate representation of the child’s linguistic knowledge.
Roseberry-McKibbin provides an overview of factors to consider when examining the performance of children who come from low socioeconomic status backgrounds.
This study proved that measures other than standardized language assessments can more accurately identify language impairment in culturally and linguistically diverse children (in this case monolingual Spanish speakers).
(Horton-Ikard & Weismer, 2007) A Preliminary Examination of Vocabulary and Word Learning in African American Toddlers From Middle and Low Socioeconomic Status Homes
This study added to the growing body of literature demonstrating a correlation between socioeconomic status and performance on standardized vocabulary tests.
This study presented the findings and implications for clinicians, educators, and policy makers after recording all interactions between caregivers and children, from age 7 months to 3 years old, in different socioeconomic classes for 1 hour per week.
(Harry & Klingner, 2006) Why Are So Many Minority Students in Special Education? Understanding Race and Disability in Schools
This book addresses the constellation of factors that have contributed to the misidentification of minority/culturally and linguistically diverse children as needing special education services and provides suggestions for improving the special education referral process.
Authors conducted a meta-analysis of diagnostic studies for language impairment in bilingual children and found a serious lack of necessary psychometric measures in the vast majority of studies examined.
(Bedore et al., 2012) The Measure Matters: Language Dominance Profiles across Measures in Spanish–English Bilingual Children
An examination between second language exposure and morphosyntactic and semantic development in preschoolers.
This article examines the benefits and differences of bilingual children’s linguistic and cognitive development.