This document is based upon the requirements of the federal, state, and city law, regulations, and policies. It incorporates current research on how to distinguish a language disorder from a language difference (i.e. cultural and linguistic differences, impact of socio-economic background). It also takes into account the current state of standardized tests and alternative assessment approaches including issues of validity, reliability, standardization samples, and biases especially cultural, linguistic, and socio-economic biases that impact prior experiences and knowledge. Finally, it is consistent with current policies and guidance from the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association.