This article describes a framework for schools and other educational institutions to follow in order to begin to implement RTI with their own students.
Background: In this article, Klingner and Edwards examine response to intervention (RTI) models and question what different stages and parts of the RTI model should look like. IDEA (2004) mandated that children not be given an IEP and placed in special education due to lack of appropriate instruction. RTI is a way of ensuring that students are receiving appropriate instruction and intervention before labeling a child as needing special education services.
Methodology and Participants: N/A
Conclusion: The authors propose an RTI model that is divided into a 4-tiered hierarchy with each level using evidence based instruction and intervention practices. But what evidence is acceptable? It should be high quality and the method should be proven with learners similar to the population where it will be implemented. If children do not succeed on one tier, they would be moved up to the next tier. Culturally responsive literacy instruction in the general education curriculum is on the first level. Often children from diverse backgrounds do not receive the type of instruction suited to their unique needs. The second tier would involve more intensive instructional support for a set amount of time to see if the student can catch up to his or her peers. The third tier would include specialists providing interventions for deficient skills in small groups, again for a set amount of time. The final tier would be an ongoing, more individual, educational support as part of a special education program.
Relevance to Field: This article describes a framework for schools and other educational institutions to follow in order to begin to implement RTI with their own students. The authors identified how schools could begin to respond to the needs of diverse learners such as students who are ELLs, culturally and linguistically diverse, or from a low socioeconomic (SES) background. Klingner and Edwards also established what it means to be evidence based and what acceptable types of evidence are. Additionally, issues related to generalizing interventions and methods proven under research conditions into real-world environments.
Klingner, J. K., & Edwards, P. A. (2006). Cultural considerations with response to intervention models. Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1), 108-117.