Find resources used throughout this playlist here:

Sociolinguistics Playlist

Preschool Disability Evaluations Playlist

Differential Diagnosis in Preschool Evaluations Playlist

Understanding Assessment: Effects of Cultural Bias on Childhood Development

Understanding Assessment: Understanding the Hologram

Picture of subway SLAM card

Click for Details: This language elicitation card and questions were designed as a tool to be used in assessing language for preschool and elementary school aged children. Developed by Cate Crowley and Miriam Baigorri. Illustrated by Tina Yeung.

Test Reviews

Understanding Assessment: How Does Linguistic Bias Affect Language Evaluations?

Find each of the modules from this playlist here:

Insights from Grammar (Grammar Fundamentals: Module 01)

Nouns, Determiners and Pronouns (Grammar Fundamentals: Module 02)

Verbs (Grammar Fundamentals: Module 03)

Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions and Contractions (Grammar Fundamentals: Module 04)

Phrases, Clauses and Sentences (Grammar Fundamentals: Module 05)

Real World Applications in Disability Evaluations: Grammar Fundamentals: Module 06)

Please find links to research mentioned in this video series here:

Adger, C. T., Wolfram, W., & Christian, D. (2014). Dialects in schools and communities. (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

American Speech Language-Hearing Association. (2003). American english dialects [Technical Report]. Available from – See more at:

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists and audiologists to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services [Knowledge and Skills]. Retrieved from

Burns, F. A., Villiers, P.A., Pearson, B.Z., & Champion, T.B. (2012). Dialect-Neutral Indices of Narrative Cohesion and Evaluation. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 43(2), 132-152.

Crowley, C. (2003). “Diagnosing communication disorders in culturally and linguistically diverse students.” ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. Digest E650mEDO-EC-03-11. Retrieved from

Crowley, C. (2013). Preschool Disability Modules: Andrea Language Analysis. Retrieved from

Crowley, C. (2012). Preschool disability evaluation modules 19-21: The Critical Questions. In Playlist of Preschool Disability Evaluation Modules. Retrieved from

Crowley, C. J. (2004). The ethics of assessment with culturally and linguistically diverse populations. The ASHA Leader, 9(5), 6-7.

English Language Arts Standards: College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language (2014). Common Core State Standards Initiative from

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. H.R.1350,108th Congress (2004)

Jacobson, P. F. & Cairns, H. S. (2008). Understanding the linguistic input of bilingual children: Implications for acquisition. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in the Schools, 39, 1-13.

Justice, L. M., & Ezell, H. K. (2002). The Syntax Handbook: Everything You Learned about Syntax–But Forgot. Thinking Publications.

Paradis, J. (2005). Grammatical Morphology in Children Learning English as a Second LanguageImplications of Similarities With Specific Language Impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 36(3), 172-187.

Paul, R., & Norbury, C. (2012). Language disorders from infancy through adolescence: Listening, speaking, reading, writing, and communicating. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Rickford, J. R. (1999). African American vernacular English: Features, evolution, educational implications. Wiley-Blackwell.

Shipley, K., & McAfee, J. (2015). Assessment in speech-language pathology: A resource manual. Cengage learning.

Valenti, D. (2014). Socially Stigmatized Dialects. Teachers College Columbia University, Bilingual Extension Institute, New York, NY.

Wolfram, W., & Schilling-Estes, N. (2005). American English: dialects and variation (2nd ed.). Malden/Oxford: Blackwell.

Zentella, A. C. (1997). Growing up bilingual: Puerto Rican children in New York. Wiley-Blackwell.