In this second module, Cate reviews the critical questions that should be asked of the parent during an evaluation and begins the first part of the interview with Alex’s mother. As evaluators, we should look to the parent in these interviews as the expert in their child’s development, over time and in various contexts, to give us critical information leading to a differential diagnosis.
Research has demonstrated that parent’s provide crucial information regarding their children in distinguishing a disability versus a difference. In this video, Cate reviews the critical questions that should be asked of the parent during an evaluation and begins the interview with Alex’s mother. She reviews family educational level (indicator of socioeconomic status) as well as gets a detailed language history, including what languages Alex and his family members have been exposed to. Cate also reviews milestones in Alex’s receptive and expressive language development such as first words, utterances, responses, and manner of following directions. Then she gathers information regarding any family history of speech/language and learning disorders, as there are frequently genetic components. However, it’s important to note that especially with bilingual and diverse individuals, there is a high rate of false positives (i.e. individuals misdiagnosed with a disability). She also asks about any recent changes (within the last 6 months) in the family structure that may significantly affect the child’s performance in the evaluation or overall development. Information regarding the child’s current educational environment and any supports he receives is also an important factor to discuss. One of the most important critical questions is the parent’s impression of the child’s language development compared to typical peers (or siblings at that age). Research has demonstrated this to be one of the most effective pieces of information in determining disability (Restrepo, 1998). Research has also demonstrated another important critical question, asking if the child is perceived as clumsy (Goffman, 2010). Children with SLI also tend to have low average motor skills. Towards the end of the video, Cate indicates where all of this information should go in an evaluation. The parent interview continues in the next module.
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Please find research mentioned in this module here:
Dale, P. (1996). Parent report assessment of language and communication. In K. Cole, P. Dale, & D. Thal (Eds.), Assessment of Communication and Language: Vol. 6, Communication and Language Intervention Series (pp. 161-182). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing. http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1996-98864-008
DiDonato Brumbach, A. C., & Goffman, L. (2014). Interaction of language processing and motor skill in children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57(1), 158-171. http://jslhr.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=1802583
Gopnik, M. (1997). Language deficits and genetic factors. Trends in Cognitive Science, 1(1), 5-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136466139701005X
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (2003). The early catastrophe: The 30 million word gap. American Educator, 27(1), 4-9. https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/periodicals/TheEarlyCatastrophe.pdf
Restrepo, M. A. (1998). Identifiers of predominantly Spanish-speaking children with language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41, 1398-1411.
Zelaznik, H. N., & Goffman, L. (2010). Motor abilities and timing behavior in children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53(2), 383-93. http://jslhr.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=1781547