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Students from low income backgrounds are especially vulnerable to falling behind their literacy development as they become adolescents and move into the upper grades. As vocabulary and content increases in complexity, students without adequate foundational skills begin to experience more struggle and frustration with grade level material. It can be particularly difficult to motivate adolescent students, so Stephanie reminds us to be sympathetic to the challenges our students face and provides strategies to motivate and support adolescent readers. Find the rest of the modules from this series below:

Please find related materials here:

Social vs. Academic Language (Sociolinguistics: Module 01)

Socioeconomic, Linguistic and Cultural Bias in Testing and Labeling Tasks (PDE: Module 12)

Find the playlist for the full set of videos in this module series here:

Increasing the Language Skills of Children from Low-Income Backgrounds Playlist

Find each of the modules from this playlist here:

Please find links to research mentioned in this module here:

Aram, D. M. and Nation, J. E. (1980) Preschool language disorders and subsequent language and academic difficulties. Journal of Communication Disorders, 13(2), 150-170.

Chall, J.S., and Jacobs, V. A. (2003). Poor children’s fourth grade slump. American Educator, 27(1). 14-17.

Dodd, B. & Carr, A. (2003). Young children’s letter-sound knowledge. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in School, 34, 128-137.

Gibbons, P. (2002). Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning: Teaching second language learners in the mainstream classroom (pp. 110-119). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Justice, L. M., Chow, S. M., Capellini, C., Flanigan, K., & Colton, S. (2003). Emergent Literacy Intervention for Vulnerable PreschoolersRelative Effects of Two Approaches. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12(3), 320-332.

Justice, L. M., & Ezell, H. K. (2000). Enhancing children’s print and word awareness through home-based parent intervention. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 9(3), 257-269.

Justice, L. M., Skibbe, L., & Ezell, H. (2006). Using print referencing to promote written language awareness. Contextualized language intervention: scaffolding pre K-12 literacy achievement, 389-428.

Montgomery, J. (2007). Vocabulary interventions for RTI: Tiers 1, 2, 3. InAmerican Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention, Boston: MA.

Nancollis, A., Lawrie, B., and Dodd, B. (2005). Phonological awareness intervention and the acquisition of literacy skills in children form deprived social backgrounds. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 36(4), 325-335.

Neuman, S. B., & Celano, D. (2006). The knowledge gap: Implications of leveling the playing field for low‐income and middle‐income children. Reading Research Quarterly, 41(2), 176-201.

Nippold, M. A., Mansfield, T.C., and Billow, J.L. (2007). Peer conflict explanations in children, adolescents, and adults: Examining the development of complex syntax. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(2), 179-188.