Stephanie Downey Toledo defines the achievement gap: the disparity in educational quality certain students experience compared to others. She goes on to explain why the achievement gap matters, including the impact the achievement gap has on individual students, communities and society.
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Please find links to research mentioned in this module here:
Cain, K., Oakhill, J. and Bryant, P. (2004). Children’s Reading Comprehension Ability: Concurrent Prediction by Working Memory, Verbal Ability, and Component Skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 31-42.
Francis, D. J., Shaywitz, S. E., Stuebing, K. K., Shaywitz, B. A., and Fletcher, J. M. (1991). Developmental lag versus deficit models of reading disability: A longitudinal, individual growth curves analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(1), 3-17.
Williams, K. (2012). Effect of Intervention WIth the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction on Access and Goal Attainment. Remedial and Special Education, 33(5), 135-153.