Children from low income backgrounds can be at risk for difficulty with both print awareness and phonological awareness, the foundations of emergent literacy. Intervention consisting of explicit instruction in phonological awareness just two times a week for half an hour demonstrated effectiveness.
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Gibbons, P. (2002). Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning: Teaching second language learners in the mainstream classroom (pp. 110-119). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Justice, L. M., Chow, S. M., Capellini, C., Flanigan, K., & Colton, S. (2003). Emergent Literacy Intervention for Vulnerable PreschoolersRelative Effects of Two Approaches. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12(3), 320-332.
Justice, L. M., & Ezell, H. K. (2000). Enhancing children’s print and word awareness through home-based parent intervention. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 9(3), 257-269.
Justice, L. M., Skibbe, L., & Ezell, H. (2006). Using print referencing to promote written language awareness. Contextualized language intervention: scaffolding pre K-12 literacy achievement, 389-428.
Neuman, S. B., & Celano, D. (2006). The knowledge gap: Implications of leveling the playing field for low‐income and middle‐income children. Reading Research Quarterly, 41(2), 176-201.